Our investigation and expertise areas revolved around the sustainable use of African horticultural species such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, and medicinal plants. Horticultural crops generate high economic returns per unit of input (e.g. land, water, labor). A prime example is urban agriculture which is developed in many African countries to procure fresh fruit and vegetable products to city dwellers. The value-addition to horticultural crops generates employment in the related agri-businesses and further down the commodity chain from the producer to the consumer to a greater degree than any other agricultural commodity. For instance, results of a Darwin Initiative project carried out in Benin indicated that the income generated per unit of area of Launaea taraxacifolia production (a traditional leafy vegetable) is higher than the income generated from maize production. Thus, horticultural production has a comparative advantage where farm size is small. It is very rewarding as it directly addresses poverty and food security issues in both urban and rural areas of the developing world and particularly it offers new market opportunities for the many subsistence farmers in tropical Africa and agribusiness entrepreneurs.